Aging & Rice Varieties in Sparkling Sake

The sparkling sake category is like a box of chocolates, full of delicious caramel filled gooey ones and some unfortunate duds, left in the box until the very end. Maybe they’re orange liqueur filled or perhaps it’s the marzipan (which I love by the way) you choose to leave to the very end. Sparkling sake can also be delicious, full of brightness and life and there are…well, some are just tasty or maybe they’re too experimental. 

The Sparkling Sake Association of Japan (Awazake Association) is a group of sake producers who have joined forces to bring cohesion and awareness to this dynamic but confusing category. The Awazake Association (http://www.awasake.or.jp/en/) consists of 15 very forward thinking sake brewers and at the helm of this group is Noriyoshi Nagai, the 6th generation president of Nagai brewery in Gunma and the founding president of the association. He’s been experimenting for years on making traditional method (Champagne method) sparkling sake, with secondary fermentation in bottle, hand riddling and bottling with a cork. Like any innovator, he says “I failed 700 times before we got it right”. 

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We hosted Nagai san and Matsumi san (his export director) in Vancouver for a few days in April where we got to taste the Mizubasho Pure, Nagai brewery’s traditional method sparkling sake made with Yamadanishiki rice. They also make a sparkling sake from Yukihotaka rice (a regionalized variety of Koshihikari rice), which we tasted alongside the Pure. 

In the lineup, we had three sparkling sakes: 1) Mizubasho Pure from the current BY (brew year) 2) Mizubasho Pure from 3 years ago (thanks to Roger Maniwa for sharing!) and 3) Mizubasho Yukihotaka (current). 

Here’s how they were showing:

  1. Mizubasho Pure (current): fresh notes of melon, crisp apples, slightly yeasty and rice-y. Soft but persistent bubbles with good texture on the palate. Very delicate and clean. 
  2. Mizubasho Pure (3 years old): some aged notes on the nose, caramel and oxidation. Less bubbles, drier on the palate and clean finish. Layered and complex. 
  3. Mizubasho Yukihotaka (current): bigger nose, tree fruits and melons. Bigger on the palate with more energy and density. 

*all three are polished to the same percentage and brewed in the same way. 

It’s important to note that the Mizubasho Pure base sake has changed over the years. The sake from 3 years ago used to be made to +3 SMV (sake meter value) while the current Pure is at around -5 SMV. The objective now is to make a more delicate, softer sparkling sake. Personally, I think the drier, aged version could be more interesting for food pairings while the current style is more finessed and is delicious on it’s own or paired with delicate dishes like raw oysters, white seafood or Chawanmushi. The aged Pure would be interesting to try with more intense fish like Aji or dishes seasoned with dashi. 

The Yukihotaka sparkling is made from a localized version of Koshihikari, a very famous eating rice. This rice used to be only available for the Emperor and if you’re in Kawaba village (where Nagai brewery is located) so it’s as fancy as it gets. Nagai san decided he wanted to show the expression of this highly regionalized rice because it’s only available in his village (or the Emperor’s kitchen). It’s the rice he’s chosen to show terroir, a sense of place. We found this sake brighter, with more energy and a richer mouthfeel. Yamadanishiki is easier to polish, with a big shinpaku (starch heart) whereas the Yukihotaka has no shinpaku. This means that there’s more fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins left in the rice when the brewer is using Yukihotaka or any table rice. What you get as a result is more flavour and potentially complexity. 

What we’re going to keep seeing for a while most likely is a large range of styles and continued experimentation in the sparkling sake category. The good news is that they’re getting better and better with more knowledge and science, which can only mean good things for everyone. 

Sake Vintage Charts?

Working in the wine world, we often use vintage charts from top sources like Decanter and Jancis Robinson to look up specific years in wine regions. These reports give us a broad look at the growing seasons in certain areas, which in turn give us insight into how a wine might be showing and how long it may last.

This hasn’t been the case for most sake brewers, as they were expected to make consistent sakes year after year and to adapt to the conditions. If the rice for a particular year was prone to dissolving quickly and easily because of a very hot growing season, brewers had to adjust steps such as rice soaking and steaming times in order to make sure the fermentation didn’t run too quickly.

In the last decade or so, young, curious brewers have started visiting rice growing regions in order to understand how the vintage and growers affect their sake. In a world where brewers used to simply say “this year’s rice is hard and doesn’t melt very well”, we’ve come a long way where they can tell you what happened during the planting season (around May or June) to harvest (September or October). What happens when there is not enough rain when the farmers are planting? How does it affect the soil and how the rice reacts later in the season when it forms the ears?

Brewers can now see why things happen, rather than simply reacting to the condition of the rice and being at Mother Nature’s mercy. Some have even gone as far as growing their own rice on loaned fields from farmers or buying land themselves in an effort to be closer to the process. This has helped them to see the bigger picture and to create the craft sake version of the “farm to bottle” movement. The underlining theme right now within the top breweries and sake brands is now consistently terroir, just as it is in any great wine region of the world.

Of course, adjustments to the brewing techniques and processes’ are still necessary to bring some brand consistency but vintage expression is being accepted and embraced more and more. The understanding is that after all, sake also comes from the earth.

Taka, a sake brand by Takahiro Nagayama in Yamaguchi Prefecture has been experimenting with vintage sakes for a number of years. His vintage Yamahai is clean, elegant and endlessly complex. The bottle aging process brings layers of maturity, not earthy, oxidative notes we often associate with aged sake. Starting with a refined sake is a must, while temperature control during the aging helps the sake to age gracefully. The alcohol, acids and edges melt together, creating a new expression.

He also happens to be a rice specialist, growing Yamadanishiki in his own fields right in front of his brewery. Here, he can see firsthand how the rice growing conditions affect the finished sake. He grows Yamadanishiki rice, considered the “king of sake rice” here in Ube for his Domaine Taka label. They are vintage declared as expected.

The water that the rice plants grow in is the same as his brewing water, one that is rich in limestone, due to the fact that the water source is from the Akiyoshidai plateau, a quasi national park including the Akiyoshido caves, the nation’s largest and longest limestone cave. The water travels through the karst formations, picking up lots of minerals along the way, giving the water it’s signature texture and nutrient concentration.

During our visit to the brewery, Taka-san gave us a quick summary of the key differences between the 2017 and 2018 vintages and what the effect was on his sake. Rice season for Yamadanishiki starts with planting in June and harvest is in October. Key times are planting, flowering, rice ear formation and harvest, all factors that influence how the rice is going to turn out in different ways. The below summary is specific to Taka-san’s own fields in front of his brewery and Yamadanishiki rice. Results are of course unique for each region, rice variety and how the brewer chooses to make their sake. 

2017: not enough rain in June, during the planting season. Rain is needed during this time to have sufficient moisture in the soil of the paddies for the seedlings to be planted.

Late summer months (August and September) were very good with enough rain and high temperatures for the rice to develop ample starches.

October was very rough with too much rain and many typhoons. Regions all over Japan were affected with severe storms.

Result: farmers couldn’t harvest until the rain stopped so the rice grains stayed on the plants too long. The harvested rice was watery and dissolved too easily during fermentation. The sake ended up being simple and not suitable for aging. These sakes are easy and pleasurable. Drink soon.

2018: good amount of rain in June while planting. The soil was sufficiently moist, with ideal conditions. Summer months (July and August) were almost too hot for Yamadanishiki while the plants flowered and the rice ears formed. But September was better with cooler temperatures and harvest in October was very good.

As a result Taka san believes the 2018 vintage sakes are overall of better quality and most likely suited for aging.

Rice vintages is a relatively new and somewhat controversial topic in the sake world but it’s a conversation that we are hearing more and more amongst some of the top sake producers in Japan. Whatever your opinion may be, it’s worth keeping your eyes out for vintage sakes to see for yourself.

Sawaya Matsumoto – Terroir in a Bottle

Sawaya Matsumoto was established in 1791 in the historic Fushimi ward in Kyoto. Hidehiko Matsumoto, the current Toji is a young visionary with a passion for showing what he can express with the simplicity of ingredients: rice, water and koji. 

His philosophy is that the true value of sake is in the rice and where it’s grown, terroir. 

In the last 3 years, Hidehiko has taken many trips to rice farms all over Japan as well as his favourite wine regions such as Burgundy and Champagne, visiting domaines and grower Champagne producers. In visiting these places he realized that the ingredients and where they come from are equally important in wine and sake; how, who and where the rice and grapes are grown have a significant impact on the finished product. 

Having worked with many rice varieties such as Yamadanishiki, Gokyakumangoku and Omachi from different farmers and terroirs, he has come to the conclusion that this is true for all varieties. 

With this understanding in mind, he felt at odds with the fact that sake isn’t yet presented in this way. This led him to start the “Shuhari” 守破離 brand within the Matsumoto lineup. 

In 2016, the brand “Shuhari”, which means to protect the past by breaking rules and boundaries, was created to express the terroir and uniqueness of the rice and growers he works with. 

The brewery is working with rice farmers in Hyogo’s top Yamadanishiki sites in the Tojo area to learn rice growing and what makes this region special. Each plot and subplot are looked at separately to try to understand each of the unique terroirs and what they offer to the final sake. The ID series is a project that showcases single plot farms within the Tojo region in Okamoto village. 

This year’s offerings are ID series 1314, 39-1 and 566 and each of the numbers correspond to the address of each of the rice plots. The labels were designed exclusively for this project by Paris based artist Emilie Sarnel.

 

 

 

Sake & Wine Terroir

What is sake and wine terroir? Recaredo Cava, Cellar Credo and Sawaya Matsumoto’s ID series were shown alongside at Pidgin on September 26th to highlight the concept of terroir in all forms. 

Recaredo produces biodynamic, grand cru Cava, which express a sense of place and individualism in a category that has been dominated by bigger brands and consistency. The grand cru Serral Del Vell, for example, produces a beautifully balanced, refined and striking wine that has tremendous aging potential. Biodynamic farming practices allow for the personality of the fruit to come through, retaining natural energy in the finished wine. 

These efforts were recognized officially when Spain recently approved 12 Cava grape growing sites in a new top-level classification with the goal of promoting single-vineyard wines. 

Cellar Credo, run by the same team as Recaredo, is a biodynamic winery who aims to give Xarello a stage and show its individuality. A grape that was often seen as “lesser”, the humble Xarello offers texture, an unique savoury and complex profile that is intimately special to this variety and region. The Catalan energy truly shines through in all the wines.  

Finally, Sawaya Matsumoto is a sake brewery in Fushimi, Kyoto with a long history of protecting tradition and breaking barriers. Each of the three ID Series is made with rice from different plots of farms in the same village. These are the sake world’s answer to single-vineyard wines. 

All made with Yamadanishiki from Tojo village in Hyogo prefecture and in the same method, each cuvée expresses the uniqueness of each plot (1314-1, 39-1 and 566). For example, the 39-1 at this time has the most acidity and juiciness. They will continue to evolve over time and show it’s own character. 

For many generations, sake brewers also aimed for consistency and to be able to reproduce the same sake and style year after year. Now, the next generation of brewers are looking to express themselves through their sake. Individualism and expression of the uniqueness of the terroir has become a key theme in some of the best producers of the world, whether we are speaking of Cava, wine or sake. 

Hanami – Drinking Ideas

If you’re in Japan in the Spring, there are a few things you should be doing. First, there are the cherry blossoms. Everyone talks about them because they’re like nothing you’ve seen before and you should go see them. Better yet, have a picnic under the blooming trees because that’s what you’re supposed to be doing. You can even drink under the trees so there will be people getting horribly drunk. Don’t be one of those.

The second thing you have to do is to have fresh sake. In the spring time breweries are busy pressing their first batches of fresh, juicy nama (unpasteurized) sakes. The first tanks of the season are started around November and they’re ready to press by this time of the year. In Canada, we’re lucky to have three sake producers who all bottle nama sakes so that we can have them all year round. There are also a few available from Japanese breweries that are shipped in specifically for this occasion, so make sure to keep your eyes open for them! They’re only available for a few months.

Lucky for you, you don’t have to choose between the two because you can actually do them together at a hanami. “Hanami 花見” translates to looking at the flowers and it’s a tradition to eat and drink under the trees with friends, family or fellow colleagues. Whether it’s a homemade bento box or a few snacks from the convenience store, make sure you have some beer, sake or maybe even some bubbles.

Unfortunately in Canada, we’re not allowed to drink outside (legally). But I’ve picked a few of my favourites to have under the cherry blossoms in High Park in Toronto or Van Dusen Gardens in Vancouver. A blanket in your living room does the trick too!

Amabuki Strawberry Yeast – from Shiga prefecture in southern Japan, this brewery specializes in using yeast from flowers to brew sake. Are you one of those people not really using their university degree? Sotaro Kinotshita, the president of the brewery, did his degree in sake brewing and his research topic was using yeasts derived from plants, which is precisely what he started doing after he took over with his brother. Pretty, light and juicy, with a soft acidity and freshness that’s unmistakably nama.

Kozaemon Sakura Sake – very lightly cloudy, this roughly filtered sake looks like white sakura petals are falling from the trees. It’s a seasonal sake and is shipped to Vancouver only once a year. Don’t be fooled by the Gokyakumangoku rice, usually known for making sake on the leaner side. Nakashima Brewery’s signature style is bold and personality driven. Never a shy sake! (by allocation)

Somdinou Blanc Jove – made with mostly white Grenache and a splash of Macabeu. Textured, fresh and full of acidity, this wine from the Terra Alta region in Spain is perfect with ceviche, BC spot prawns (if you can wait that long) or some traditional chirashi sushi, which looks more like vinegar rice salad with lots of bright colours.

2005 Hubert Paulet Rosé (Champagne)– I know, I know, it’s a little predictable, rose Champagne and cherry blossoms. But it’s delicious and serious (and seriously delicious) and you need to find yourself a place to pour this lovely Pinot Meunier rose from Rilly-la-Montagne into a red solo cup and maybe some siu mai dumplings and bbq duck for the perfect picnic.

WSET Sake Level 1 in Canada!

It’s finally here! Earlier last year, WSET launched the Level 3 Award in Sake and while level 1 was available in test markets in London and the US since this summer, it’s just made it to Canada. I’m teaching it in Vancouver and Toronto in the next couple of months. If you’re in or close to either city, it’s a terrific introduction or review into the beautiful world of sake! Because it’s me, I’ll be covering food pairings with REAL food!

Details below:

Vancouver – The Art Institute of Vancouver is offering a WSET sake level 1 course for the first time in Canada, taught by Mariko Tajiri. It’s a 1-day course on Saturday, January 14th and it’s perfect for anyone who works with sake in restaurants or retail, or those who just want to learn more! Brewing basics, sake service, classifications and food pairings will all be covered.

Date: Saturday, January 14th, 2017
Time: 9:00 am – 5:30 pm
Location: The Art Institute of Vancouver
(2665 Renfrew Street
Vancouver, British Columbia)
Price: $349
Contact: Angela at 604.989.8009 or alandon@aii.edu to book your spot now.

The Art Institute also offers gift certificates for Christmas gifts and stocking stuffers…the gift of learning keeps on giving!

Toronto – This session will be taught at IWEG (Independent Wine Education Guild) and the enriched food and sake pairing component will be delivered by instructor Mariko Tajiri, providing the opportunity to experience key pairing principles through interactive tasting.    Students will have access to the Study Guide upon receipt of tuition and are required to read through the material before attending class in order to be familiar with content and participate in activities.  There will be a short break midday for refreshment. Glassware provided.

Date: Saturday, February 25th, 2017
Time: 9:30 am – 5:30 pm
Location: IWEG
(211 Yonge St. Suite 501 Toronto, Ontario)
Price: $360 **Special industry pricing available. Please enquire!
Contact: 416.534.2570

Christmas in Japan = KFC?

The holidays is a time of year when family and friends gather around – what else – food. I grew up with roast beef (my favourite) alongside big bowls of white rice and soy sauce at the dinner table on Christmas Eve. Awkward conversations, ever-so drunken uncles and aunts, everyone’s got memories of this time of year: the good, the bad and the ugly. Whatever your story may be, eating and drinking is probably a part of it.

I’ve seen holiday dinners with pierogies, cabbage rolls, sushi and my favourite, KFC. In Japan, turkeys aren’t easy to find. Turkey legs or breasts maybe, but certainly not the whole bird. In the 1970s, Kentucky Fried Chicken found a way to market the Japanese obsession with all things American during the holidays by promoting buckets of KFC fried chicken as a Christmas treat, along with a snowy-white Christmas cake.

You can pre-order these dinners, which now include a bottle of sparkling wine. Maybe it sounds strange but maybe they were onto something; maybe they were a little ahead of the times, as hipster restaurants have sprung up in some of our favourite hipster neighbourhoods around the world serving up fried chicken and grower-Champagne. Whether you’re a Juke Chicken (YVR), Church’s Chicken or KFC fan, here are a few beverages to accompany your crispy, salty drumstick or two:

Kuheiji Eau du Desir 2015 – not quite sparkling but the way this eccentric brewery pasteurizes the sake leaves a little tingle on the palate. Delicious with a salty, not so spicy fried chicken recipe.

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Tengumai Yamahai Junmai – brewed using the powers of natural fermentation and without adding lactic acid, this sake is salty, mouth-watering  and food-perfect. Drink slightly chilled for lots of acidity and umami. An easy pick for all things fried.

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Hubert Paulet Premier Cru 2005 Rose – a grower Champagne producer who sells half their grapes to Billecart-Salmon, this elegant but nervy rose is made up of mostly Chardonnay, with a splash of Pinot Meunier. Fine bubbles with strawberries and soft herbs on the palate goes great with fried chicken knuckles at dim sum.

Champagne & Sake: a contract between the label and the consumer?

“Champagne is a contract between the label and the consumer.” The documentary “A Year in Champagne” highlighted the concept that many Champagne producers feel that it is their responsibility to give their customers the same, reliable, consistent bottle that they have become accustomed to. Especially for a non-vintage product, a bottle must taste the same each time, so the consumer isn’t surprised or even worse, disappointed. As Jon Bonne said in his article about the changing tides of Champagne, “the old philosophy that blending, and branding, matter most” has reigned supreme in this region for generations. http://punchdrink.com/articles/champagnes-next-revolution-is-now/

The house style is akin to the producer’s signature and a lot of energy is spent making sure that it is consistent. Those of us in the beverage world like to romanticize about the wine makers, the brew masters, the artisans who make the beverage. However, the role of the blender if often glazed over. These are the (often) uncelebrated individuals in the background who the brands rely on to keep their products consistent.

This has also been the way in the world of sake. For most it’s history, sake breweries expended a tremendous amount of energy on making their products taste the same year after year. A brewer was said to be skilled if they could produce consistent sake regardless of the harvest, the weather and other conditions that could contribute to changes in the final sake. This means that at most breweries, there is a blender whose job it is to taste each of the tanks and the batches, then blend them to achieve the desired taste. As much as the world of sake is fetishized as a boutique, small lot artisan craft, there is actually a tremendous amount of effort spent on making the products in line with what they think is their house style. And in no way should this be considered bad.

Changing tides – in the last 10 years however, some sake brewers (usually younger) have made philosophical shifts. Rather than making dependable, homogeneous sake the ultimate goal, some who belong to this new camp of thinking have embraced variation. This can be between vintages, tanks or taste differences (ie. concentration, purity, etc.) depending on the stages of the pressing cycle. In this situation, each bottle can be slightly or very different from the next bottle that is opened. This can be interesting as you never know exactly what to expect and it also makes it easier for product differentiation. It can be a way of distinguishing yourself from the rest or a particular product from the rest of the portfolio. Examples of brands who think in this way are Kuheiji, Yamagata Masamune and Taka.

In the world of Champagne, we see this shift usually and mostly with grower producers, who want to express more of the terroir of their wines, as well as differentiation through vintages, cuvees and winemaking. As Jean-Baptiste of Rene Geoffroy explained, he is trying to make “wines of Champagne”, rather than Champagne. True to this goal, his still wines are beautiful, regardless of the absence of bubbles. The effervescence adds lift and prettiness to the wines, rather than being the star of the show.

Managing Expectations – A huge challenge in showing variation whether it is in Champagne or sake comes is managing the expectations of your audience. If the consumer is expecting to open a bottle and taste the same product time after time, it is difficult for a producer to try to convince them that variation is a good thing. The bigger brands have more to lose whereas the smaller producers can experiment and play more. Whatever might be the producer’s philosophy, there is room for variation and I think more the merrier, especially when it comes to Champagne and Sake.

 

 

In Defense of Koshu: Vintages, aging & bottle conditioning in Sake

With wine, we often hear about good vintages and bad vintages, or how long a bottle has aged. Now, there’s a new generation of brewers who are taking these ideas to sake.

For centuries, a sake brewer’s skill was said to be their ability to produce the same sake, year after year, no matter the conditions. Good rice, bad rice, wet year, dry year, you had to make a consistent taste. Aged sake, or koshu, has a reputation of being oxidative, funky or misunderstood as ‘unfresh’ sake. Regardless of your opinion of the ‘new breed’ of sake brewers and the sakes they make, there’s clearly some new things happening in the century-old world of sake:

Sake Vintages: there’s two main approaches to sake vintages – declaring the year that the sake was produced or declaring the harvest year of the rice. Since rice is harvested anywhere from September to November but brewing doesn’t usually start until November (not the top-level stuff), there is a difference between the production year and harvest year. Rice harvested in October of 2008 might not be used to brew until early 2009. What these producers are trying to do is show either the difference in rice harvest conditions of that particular year or the difference in aging potential. Some famous breweries doing this include Kuheiji, who declares the rice harvest year and also ages most of his sakes. What he’s trying to do is show the conditions of the growing season, as well as sake’s ability to age. Someone like Yamagata Masamune from Mitobe Brewery, on the other hand, bottles a particularly well made tank of their top-end Akaiwa Omachi Junmai Ginjo into a vintage ‘cuvee’.

Aging: I classify sake aging in two super broad categories, cold and warm. Aging in sub-zero temperatures is a direction we’re starting to see more and more of. It’s usually a Daiginjo, pasteurized only once (to retain the fresh, fruity flavours & aromas) and in bottle. I’ve heard anywhere from 0 to -8 degrees. This really slows down the aging process and really concentrates the flavours. I find that they are very silky on the palate as well. The sakes that are aged in warm or room temperatures are either very highly polished (Daiginjo level) or not very much (Junmai level). I think it’s safe to say that the latter is more common, as aging in warmer temperatures brings out the nutty, earthy flavours that a Junmai sake offers and is highlighted by the aging process. The fats and proteins of the rice are still there and in turn, those are the flavour components, like in the Momotose aged sakes. However, some of my favourite aged sakes are highly polished, like the Kirakucho Hizoshu, polished down to 35%. It’s clean, focused and utterly complex.

Bottle conditioning: this is done often in conjunction with the above methods. Traditionally, at classic breweries, sake was pressed –> pasteurized –> aged in tank –> pasteurized –> bottled. A lot of the new breed brewers are not tank aging or pasteurizing a second time. This can result in more characterful sake. The thought is that by only pasteurizing once, you’re leaving a lot of the flavours (ie. fruit, acidity, some effervescence) that a second pasteurization takes away. Charcoal filtering is another classic technique that removes colour and other aging agents that new breed brewers are opting out of. Why strip colour and flavour out of something you’ve spent a lot of time and effort on?

Try tasting each of these examples of aged sake and see for yourself!

Burt Reynolds & Sake – Water Hardness

Sake nerds are weird people. We get together and talk about yeast numbers and often, how hard the water is. I’m going to indulge my inner geek and talk about this exciting topic…

Water hardness is the amount of calcium and magnesium in the water. These minerals come from rocks, such as limestone that dissolves in the system. Japan, as a country, has generally soft water. The average is 61 mg/L, whereas it’s 120 mg/L for the US. For those of us in the West Coast of Canada, the water is unusually soft, where the source is mostly from mountain lakes fed by glaciers and snowmelt, at around 5 mg/L for Vancouver. Why does this matter to sake?

To put is simply, harder water promotes vigorous fermentation, as calcium is necessary for enzyme activity. This often leads to sakes that are thicker and fuller bodied. It’s suitable for Junmai and Yamahai styles of sake, which have a solid backbone of acidity. Nada, in Kobe, has been traditionally raised as an example of a hard water source. Fushimi, Kyoto, for soft water. Below are examples of water from some of my favourite breweries:

Toronto: 128 mg/L

Vancouver: 5 mg/L

Tengumai: 105 mg/L

Fukumitsuya: 178 mg/L

Hakkaisan: 43 mg/L

Soft water sake has been traditionally called “onna-zake” (“woman sake”) and hard water sake “otoko-zake” (“man sake”). Yes, it’s kind of sexist and gender specific but most of the time, it makes sense. More often than not, hard water sakes are thick and full-bodied, like the Burt Reynolds of sake. And more often than not, soft water sakes are lighter and leaner, like…I’ll leave that to your imagination.

waterThis is a bottle of water I bought at Narita airport and it’s supposedly water from Mt. Fuji. It lists the water hardness, which my inner geek finds super interesting: 32 mg/L. So I imagine that it’s flowed through the mountain a bit, picking up minerals along the way, which is why it’s not super soft.

Water hardness doesn’t tell you everything – there are SO many factors when brewing sake that contribute to the final taste that it can’t just be about the water. But as it makes up 80% of the final product, I think it’s at least worth a thought or two.